By Leigh Page

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8. Again other states of this type can be based on the other axes. However, these are not all independent since (x2 - y2)q,{r) + (y2 - z2)q,{r) y Fig. 8 Boundary surfaces of d states + (Z2 x2)4>{r) = O. As a result for the fifth independent d state it is usual to take a linear combination of the d]J2 _ z2 and d;:2 _ x2 states, known as a d;:2 state, which has conical nodal surfaces as in Fig. 8. In higher energy levels more complicated wave patterns appear. For example, in the n = 4 group there are seven 4/ states as well as five 4d (one spherical node), three 4p (two spherical nodes) and one 4s (three spherical nodes).

The work to remove one electron from an initially neutral atom in its most stable state is called the first ionization energy I of the atom. Fig. 1 gives values. Metals have lower values than other elements; cf. 4-5 eV for alkali metals, 6-9 eV for most other metals, 13·6 eV for hydrogen, 10-17 eV for halogen elements and 12-24 eV for the noble gases. § 3~1 ELECTROPOSITIVE AND ELECTRONEGATIVE 19 ELEMENTS Easy dissociation into positive ions and free electrons is the central property of a metal.

Similar behaviour occurs in the later rows of the periodic table. The energy levels of 4d relative to 5$ and Sd relative to 6$ lead to two more groups of transition metals. An additional feature of the last group is that the filling of the 5d states is interrupted, while the fourteen 4f states fill up, in the rare earth metals. This delayed filling of (n - 2) f states and of (n - 1) d states, after the ns states have started to fill, means that most of the elements in the lower part of the periodic table have one or two easily ionizable s electrons in their outermost group and so are metals.

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An introduction to electrodynamics from the standpoint of the electron theory by Leigh Page

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