By Philippe G. Ciarlet

ISBN-10: 1402042477

ISBN-13: 9781402042478

This monograph offers the fundamental theorems of differential geometry in third-dimensional area, together with a radical insurance of floor concept. via a chain of conscientiously chosen and consultant mathematical versions this monograph additionally explains at size how those theorems are utilized in three-d elasticity and in shell conception. The presentation is largely selfcontained, with a very good emphasis on pedagogy. specifically, no "a priori" wisdom of differential geometry or of elasticity thought is believed, the one standards are a cheap wisdom of uncomplicated research, practical research, and a few acquaintance with usual and partial differential equations.

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Biaririomeric helices of opposite cliirolity are sllown cibove ( A und A). Combincitioti of A with itself (lower left) and with A (lower right) crmites two dia~terromericohjrcts. The iriteractions A-A and A-A differ visibly and drarnciticnlly, u s con be seen by nestling two mirror-huge helicrs (A-A) orid then attetiiptirig to do the some with two helices which are iclenrical (A-A) : They just won't fit! A is defined as a lelt-handed and A us o riglit-handed helix. reactivity, including the oft-encountered differences in biological activity, are all consequences of this principle.

2 o-bond and a 2p,-2p, =-bond, and the two unshared electron pairs occupy the remaining two oxygen 2 ~ p . , they occupy the nodal plane of the 7-bond. In benzene, the o-framework ( x y plane) has hexagonal symmetry. The C - C a-bonds are described by 2spr,’-2sp,,’ and the C-H o-bonds by 2sprt-1s. The plane of the o-framework is the nodal plane of the =-cloud which is formed by sideways overlap of the six p: electrons. 14 Reflection Symmetry-Point Groups We have made frequent use of symmetry elements in order to aid in the description of molecular geometry, and we shall now introduce a shorthand notation for specifyingthe symmetry class of the commonly encountered organic molecules.

Such models permit some estimate of the nearness of regions of high electron density in various geometric arrangements and hence allow a crude guess at the importance of nonbonded interactions (steric effects) in various situations. The spatial position of the nuclei is virtually impossible to gauge in such models. In contrast, other types of molecular models emphasize the relative positions of nuclei in space by leaving out entirely any representations of electron density. ) Top: space-filling Stuart-Briegleb models.

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An Introduction to Differential Geometry with Applications to Elasticity by Philippe G. Ciarlet


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