By K. N. Liou
Solid ebook for either undergrads and grads. additionally valuable as a reference booklet for researchers.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
8). (b) For the Q-branch, show that the line spacing is proportional to the difference of the rotational constants in the ground and excited states. 14 Derive Eq. 10) from Eq. 13). 15 Prove that the line intensity S = −∞ kν dν for Lorentz, Doppler, and Voigt absorption lines. 1 cm−1 in the wavenumber domain at the standard temperature and pressure. 17 Derive Eq. 19b) from Eq. 19a). In the limits of α → 0 and α D → 0, show that the Voigt proﬁle reduces to the Doppler and Lorentz shapes, respectively.
18 requires the derivation of Eq. 25). The population of energy levels and the resulting source functions will be governed by the conﬂict between radiative and collisional effects. The rate of collisional adjustment of state populations is determined by a relaxation time proportional to the pressure. Radiative adjustment is determined by the natural lifetime of the excited states with respect to radiative transitions and is dependent on speciﬁc molecules but independent of the state of the medium.
The bright granules are fairly uniformly distributed over the solar disk and are believed to be associated with ascending hot gases in the uppermost layer of the zone of convection discussed previously. The photosphere is a comparatively thin layer about 500 km thick that constitutes the source of the sun’s visible radiation, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The temperature in this layer varies from 8000 K in the lower layer to 4000 K in the upper layer. Matching the theoretical Planck curve versus wavelength (see Fig.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by K. N. Liou