By Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes
The amount comprises summaries of proof, theories, and unsolved difficulties concerning the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of typically huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the US. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of people has ended in the advice that foraging people are in charge, even if significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a number of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) topics -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; due to the fact that then loads of leading edge, fascinating new study has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. various chapters during this quantity supply in-depth resum?s of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the US, the potential insights into animal ecology supplied by way of stories of strong isotopes and anatomical/physiological features similar to progress increments in vast and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic study approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of courting easy methods to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies relating human looking of huge mammals.
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Extra info for American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology)
Later eastern dates for Clovis sensu stricto; classic sites such as Lehner and Murray Springs in Arizona date to ca. 10,900 BP, but so does Shawnee-Minisink in eastern Pennsylvania (Dent, 1999). Shawnee-Minisink is now the most precisely dated Clovis site: 10,935 ± 15 BP, by averaging of several dates on burnt seeds (Waters and Stafford, 2007). The corridor seems now to have opened some time prior to 11,000 BP (contra Arnold, 2002). Recent tentative identification of elk (wapiti, Cervus elaphus) antler “foreshafts” (their presumed function) in the Anzick infant burial in Montana suggests that elk and other large mammals could have traversed the corridor at the same time that humans did.
The appearance of fluted or pseudo-fluted fishtail (Fell I) points in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego about 11,000–10,700 BP (Flegenheimer and Zarate, 1997) signals the arrival of Clovis-descended Paleoindians around 12,900 cal bp. The earliest of the most precise (1-sigma < 100), internally consistent radiocarbon dates from good stratigraphic contexts for Fell I assemblages in southernmost South America (Miotti and Salemme, 2003) are: Piedra Museo Tres Arroyos Cerro Tres Tetas Cueva Casa del Minero 11,000 ± 65 (AA-27950) 10,925 ± 65 (OxA 8528) 11,085 ± 70 (OxA 9248) 10,915 ± 65 (AA-22233) 10,999 ± 55 (AA-37207) 10,967 ± 55 (AA-37208) 31 At first glance, these dates are as early as the best-dated Clovis sites in North America (ca.
10,940 ± 60 on Ephedra twig from same sample Dung 10,750 ± 140 (A-1583), 10,780 ± 140 (A-1534), 11,060 ± 180 (A-1584) 11,140 ± 320 (A-1589) 10,950 ± 70 10,870 ± 200 (A-1155), 11,490 ± 180 (1852) 11,020 ± 200 (A-1068), 11,000 ± 140 (A-1066), 10,780 ± 200 (A-1067), 10,500 ± 180, 10,400 ± 275 (I-442), 10,035 ± 250 (L-473 A)* 11,140 ± 160 (A-1212); 11,060 ± 240 (A-2627); 10,650 ± 220 (A-2626) 11,330 ± 370 (A-1878) 11,080 ± 200 (Y-1163B) 9,840 ± 160* (Y-1163A) Dung Dung, *body tissue, possibly contaminated Dung Nothrotheriops shastensis Nothrotheriops shastensis 24 but still nowhere on paper.
American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology) by Gary (Ed.) Haynes, Gary Haynes