By Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich

16 reference structures were outlined by way of the U.S. division of strength, and created as EnergyPlus enter documents, to be used in assessing new applied sciences and helping the improvement of strength codes in pursuing construction power potency advancements. Infiltration premiums within the EnergyPlus versions of the reference constructions have been enter as consistent airflow charges, and never calculated in response to validated construction airflow conception. so one can help extra physically-based airflow calculations, in addition to indoor air caliber research, versions of the sixteen reference structures have been created within the multizone airflow and contaminant delivery application CONTAM. a couple of extra inputs needed to be outlined for the CONTAM types, and adjustments within the inside zoning have been required, to extra realistically account for airflow. Annual airflow and contaminant simulations have been played in CONTAM for 6 of the structures. whereas the assumed infiltration premiums in EnergyPlus don't realistically replicate affects of climatic conditions, there are transparent relationships among the outdoors air switch charges calculated via CONTAM and climate. furthermore, the envelope airtightness values assumed in both technique are obvious to have an incredible impression at the air swap premiums. Contaminant analyses have been played for occupant-generated carbon dioxide, unstable natural compounds from indoor resources, outdoors particulate subject, and outdoors ozone. The airflow and contaminant calculation effects offer an invaluable baseline for next use of those versions to enquire ways to development air flow and different applied sciences which are meant to at the same time lessen construction strength intake whereas protecting or bettering indoor air caliber.

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CONTAMINANT SIMULATION RESULTS This section presents the contaminant simulation results for system-on hours only, during which the majority of the occupants are present. The distribution of daily average concentrations of all contaminants, distribution of daily peak CO2 concentrations, and distribution of daily peak volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentrations are plotted in Figure 20 to Figure 37 for the selected zones listed in Table 7 for each of the six buildings. Detailed results can be found in Appendix B.

Max. 820 1683 5 98 1 68 34 1186 Daily peak contaminant concentrations Min. Max. 847 1363 1 89 1 60 22 306 Daily peak contaminant concentrations Min. Max. ” values only apply to the zones in each building for which contaminant concentrations are reported (see Table 7 for selected zones). 31 Figure 20 to Figure 25 show the average and peak CO2 concentrations for the six simulated buildings. The differences in these values among the selected zones reflect variations in occupant density and outdoor air intake per person.

Models compared to the EnergyPlus (tight) models, as reflected in plots (b) of Figure 8 to Figure 13. 1), the system-off air outdoor change rates calculated using EnergyPlus are constant, whether plotted against ΔT or Ws. Only for the Medium Office and Primary School were the conditions suitable for economizer operation when the HVAC system was scheduled to be off for the EnergyPlus (tight) models. During system-off economizer operation in the Medium Office (Figure 10b) and Primary School (Figure 11b), the outdoor air change rates calculated using EnergyPlus were higher (indicated by black triangles) than the system-off air change rates (indicated by blue x’s).

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Airflow and Indoor Air Quality Models of DOE Reference Commercial Buildings by Lisa C Ng, Andrew K Persily, Steven J Emmerich

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