By United Nations

ISBN-10: 1417576944

ISBN-13: 9781417576944

ISBN-10: 9211214424

ISBN-13: 9789211214420

Pollution has turn into a key challenge of everyday life in huge towns. This booklet units out the result of a venture performed in the course of 2000-2002 to review the administration of pollution in 3 Latin American towns of Mexico urban, Sao Paulo and Santiago. The venture interested in the attention and participation of the population of the affected towns in regards to the challenge and the significance of citizen involvement for the improvement of potent coverage suggestions and mechanisms for pollution keep an eye on.

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This can be ascribed to three factors: (i) lack of information on the environment, or the provision of inadequate information because of the issue’s subjectivity; (ii) the dilemmas attendant on choices between a 26 According to Gaventa and Robinson (1999, cited in Holms and Scoones),there are basically four ways that non-elite citizens can participate in policy-making: (i) through subtle and covert resistance; (ii) through community groups, trade unions, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and social movements; (iii) by political means, through representatives of the people and elections, and through more revolutionary and confrontational action; and (iv) by means of a deliberative and inclusive process.

Worcester (1996) defines ”value” as ”the strong waves of public opinion, which change slowly but have great force”. It is said that a human’s value system or worldview is fundamental, that it rarely changes, and that it has a great influence on perception and individual preferences, which are expressed in behaviour. This is because 38 ECLAC the value system acts as a ”filter” for information (Kempton, Boster and Hartley 1995) and determines attitudes and future actions. The various studies of value systems and the environment all agree that there has been a change in values.

This is because such problems respond to a particular worldview, the "paradigm of human exceptionalism", that takes account of neither the environment nor biophysical perspectives. Hence they deem necessary a new ecological paradigm that, unlike the preceding one, regards humans as part of nature. Advocates of this new paradigm believe that if this worldview were to become widespread it would facilitate an improvement in environmental conditions (Buttel, 1996; Taniguchi, 1998; Buttel, 2001 and Dunlap, 2001).

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Air Pollution and Citizen Awareness by United Nations

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