By Saulo Rodrigues-Filho
Mineralogical-sedimentological and geochemical investigations together with pollen info of a 12.7-m-long dated sediment center from Lake Silvana, SE Brazil, let the reconstruction of the climatic historical past during the last 10,000 years. The lowermost part (I) displays a rough paleosol-type sediment with plentiful plant particles and rootlets; pollen exhibits grassland crops. part II represents fine-grained lake sediments; pollen shows a savanna-like plants. part III represents a pollen-free, coarse-grained allogenic sediment deposited below excessive transportation power (increased precipitation). part IV, a greenish series with expanding C content material in the direction of the pinnacle, has a pollen spectrum of present-day crops (semideciduous forest). different sediment sections convey a reference to erosional levels within the catchment of the lake, in line with mineralogy and geochemistry, that are a reaction to weather improvement.
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Extra info for A Holocene Sedimentary Record from Lake Silvana, Se Brazil: Evidence for Paleoclimatic Changes from Mineral, Trace-Metal, and Pollen Data (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences)
5). 3 Physical and chemical parameters of the water column of Lake Silvana Physical and chemical parameters of the water column above the core site were obtained by in situ measurements of Eh, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature in summer time (Dec. 1996). During winter (June 1996), dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity were not measured. In addition, laboratory analyses of dissolved Fe and Mn were performed in samples collected during the summer. No accentuated thermal stratification was observed within the water column in summer, with a decrease of only I°C from the epilimnion to the hypolimnion.
There is a clear predominance of boehmite and diaspore in deposits formed during Mesozoic and Palaeozoic times, while those formed in the Tertiary are generally gibbsitic. Bauxite deposits in Brazil and East Africa are included in the last group. Ferricretes, or iron crusts, seem to be better preserved under seasonally contrasted tropical climates with a long dry season, as in humid regions they tend to break down (Nahon, 1986; Tardy and Roquin, 1992). Seasonally contrasted tropical climates are thought to be associated with the formation of iron crusts because alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions are required to allow successive small-scale redistribution of iron by leaching (Boulet, 1978 in Nahon, 1986).
0_ - 390 - - : 420 . i 830 870 900 -! "1020 - ~ - : ~ : : ~ : : : : : ~ m ~ ..... 1050 - o~==mmm 1080 1110 ~ - : : - - - - ~ ;. . . . . ] ................................. I L I ) i -----" i 114o ~ : i ~ ~ i 1230 ~ 1260 ~ ; ~ I ! l~>63pm .................. 2 Summary diagram of mineral stratigraphy, distribution. Paleoenvironmental organic carbon and grain size zones I to IVA as described in the text. 3 Summary diagram of mineral stratigraphy and grain size distribution. Paleoenvironmental zones I to IVA as described in the text.
A Holocene Sedimentary Record from Lake Silvana, Se Brazil: Evidence for Paleoclimatic Changes from Mineral, Trace-Metal, and Pollen Data (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences) by Saulo Rodrigues-Filho